|Cult architecture of Irkutsk|
Before the revolution in Irkutsk it was near pyatidesyani of the acting temples. From them two monastyrya (man and female), two cathedrals even 38 parochial churches.
- After the crushing defeat of Russian orthodox church in the middle 30- X of years and prior to the beginning of World War II in Irkutsk there was not one acting church. During the war it was permitted restore/reduce some temples. From that time also to 90- X of years in Irkutsk it was three acting churches: Krestovozdvizhenskaya , Znamenskaya and Mixa1lo- Arkhangel'sk .
- In Siberia the catholics of steel to appear from the end KHVII v. their large part arrived not on its will - as the deportee the inhabitants of the Polish- Lithuanian earth/ground, participants in the uprisings for the sovereignty of Poland and Lithuania, uprising of Tadeusz Kostyushkya (1795), of November uprising (1830), of uprising peasants under the management/manual of the priest of Peter Stsegenny, uprising of 1863-1864 and others; the captured First World War; in the Stalin period - punished Poles, Ukrainians, belorussy, Lithuanians, Latvians and the Germans of Volga Region.
- There were catholics, who arrived into Siberia in the searches for the earnings: merchants, prospectors. The building of Trans-Siberian main, which created many work sites, caused the large inflow/boss of catholics. The agrarian reform Of stolypina caused the migration of the large masses of people from the West, where there was much population and it is small the earth/ground.
- In 1806 into Siberia of profit the missionaries of the monastic order of dominikantsev, in 1808 they attained the official acknowledgement of their presence, and the content due to the treasury of three rimsko- Catholic priests was assigned on the highly affirmed state/staff for the Irkutsk and Tomsk province. In three years at the special invitation of Siberian governor general Pestel, to Siberia were caused the monks of the order of Jesuits. The successor Of pestelya, governor general Lavinskiy wrote about this thus: " calling into Siberia the monks of Jesuit order, it (Pestel') hoped that the Jesuits will be there useful for training the youth, and also in the political relations with China, where this order has its missionaries; why it obtained so that the number of rimsko- Catholic priests would be increased. Thus, in 1811 assigned into Siberia instead of three six rimsko- Catholic priests of Jesuit order, koim it is permitted to have a constant stay in cities Irkutsk and Tomsk ". In Irkutsk they appeared in 1812. The director of mission was the father Of martseliy Kamen'skiy, with it profit the father Of vintsentiy Of lashkevich, father Tadeusz Potovskiy monk Tadeusz Drozdovskiy. In 1814 from Irkutsk for organizing the mission in Tomsk left the priests headed by father Kamen'skim and director of Irkutsk arrival it became the father Of lashkevich.
- In 1814 in the territory of Irkutsk mission were counted 1226 catholics, in 1815 their number was reduced to 972, and to 1819 again it increased and composed 1265 people.
- On the arrival into Irkutsk the father- Jesuits built small wooden chasovenku and began serious pastyr'skuyu work. One priest was always situated in Irkutsk, rest traveled on the province, attending catholics in the places of their increase.
- Jesuits acted in Siberia up to 1820, when for excessive akitvnost', by tsarist edict, they were removed beyond the limits of empire, and in post of Catholic priests into Irkutsk and Tomsk profit the members of bernardinskogo order. They arrived with the decree of archbishop Mogilevskiy, who prescribes the education of the arrival of the assumption of Mother of God. After finding the chapel of very modest built by Jesuits, bernardiny attained permission/resolution to the construction in Irkutsk of special building for the Catholic temple. this it had to be wooden church in the classical style with the columns and two angels. Angels were located near the cross, worshiping to him. In 1825 the church into the name of the ascension Of bozhiyey mother was built to the means of the quotients of pozhertvovateley.
- In 1820 Irkutsk rimsko- Catholic arrival was founded. It absorbed into itself the territory of Irkutsk province and Yakut region with a total area of 3 464 470 square versts. To 1825 here it was counted to 1400 people of Catholic religion. During entire KHIKH of century, the basic source of their appearance in Siberia was the penal servitude and reference. After uprising in the reign Polish in 1830, thousands of its participants were sent for Siberia for the penal servitude, for the settling or for the service in the quartered here military parts. From this time Poles became most numerous group among the catholics in Siberia. In thirty years their number was considerably supplemented by participants in the Polish uprising 1863-1864 iz-za this in the custom the church of steel to call " Polish ", but not " Rimsko- Catholic ".
- Fathers -bernardinqy worked in Irkutsk several years, and then left into Lithuania. The performance of pastoral responsibilities approached the priest from the order of mariantsev the father Of kshishtof Shvermitskiy .
- The wooden building of church burned down during the fire of 22-24 June 1879. Shvermitskiy immediately approached the collection of means and the assertion of the project of building new temple. The author of architectural project became well-known Irkutsk architect Jan Tamulevich. In the summer of 1881 on the spot of the burned down church began the building of new, in the brick performance. Money to the building it was insufficient, but they began it taking into account the significant enterings subsequently. Construction department of the main administration of East Siberia (GUVS) and Irkutsk governor general Anuchin affirmed the project on 26 August, 1881. Foundation was by this time already finished/prepared and masons approached laying of walls. Toward the end of 1881 the walls of the lower basement floor, where compartments/rooms for the clergy and the church crew were assumed were elevated. However, the building of church paused itself on this. Occurred this " as a result of the excessive rise in price of prices of the materials and of the wages, and also as a result of the impoverishment of donations ". Building was continued in 1883, to fulfill engineering supervision after it was invited manager of construction department GUVS architect baron G.Rozen . Toward the end of 1884 the building of church was, in essence, it is completed and on 8 December in it began divine service.
- Main altar' of " excellent open work from tree/wood " was made according to the figures of Wojciech Of koperskogo in 1888. It consisted of the throne, above which were raised " to the arches/summaries three open arches, which rest on four the same columns. In the average/mean arch, in the open frame the means of the mother Of bozhiyey, and above it cross. All this is painted by paint/color oil under the oak ". Main altar', dedicated to the assumption Of bozhiyey mother, gave official designation to entire temple: Irkutsk rimsko- Catholic church into the name of the assumption of the holiest virgin of Mary. Along both sides from the main thing were arranged/located lateral altari, built in 1892. Right with the image SV of Joseph, leftist with the crucifix of Christ's Iisusa. Carved tree/wood department for the sermons (pulpit) was established/installed in 1895. For those praying in the hall the benches stood. There was no organ/control in by Irkutsk church, instead of it on the choruses stood harmonium of American firm " storn and Clark ", extracted in 1896 from Warsaw.
- Kshishtof Shvermitskiy was the director of church from 1856 through 1885 since only about fourth of all catholics of its arrival it lived in Irkutsk, for it was necessary much to drive on the province. About its parishioners he wrote as follows: they " consist exclusively of settlers and convicts... there is not one village, not settlement so that only exclusively some persons alone of rimsko- Catholic confession would be settled, what were not national character - Poles, Lithuanians, zhmuydiny and Germans, their authorities settles on the villages between the Russian population... Little it arrives Catholic families... all almost unmarried persons of masculine floor for the most part ". From 1894 through 1911 g.chislo of catholics in the Irkutsk province it increased almost five and composed almost 30 thousand people, due to the migrants from the western regions of Russia. They tried to settle together, and in their largest settlings Catholic chapels, were constructed.
- Once Irkutsk Catholic arrival was largest in the world, since enormous Irkutsk province entered into its composition. Were then created new arrivals in Chita, Blagoveshchenk, Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Usol6e- Siberian, to Slyudyanka. In the beginning KHKH of century was created apostolic administratura for the Far East in Vladivostok.
- In 1921 local authorities nationalized the property of Catholic arrival, including cult buildings and entire located in them utensils. Simultaneously with the municipalization of the property of arrival there was the attempt to shut church generally, after canceling agreement with the community. Commissions, carry out вшие проверки, нашли много недостатков в содержании костела и предъявили общине обвинение в несоблюдении договора об аренде. Вышло постановление о ликвидации общины, но иркутские католики отстояли свои права и расторжение договора было отложено. В феврале 1938 года очередная комиссия горсовета, обследовав костел потребовала его закрытия. К этому времени община осталась без руководства: ксендз и половина членов исполнительного органа были арестованы как враги народа по 58-й статье. Последним настоятелем прихода был отец Жуковский, а последним церковным старостой - господин Парафянович. Ослабленная и не имеющая достаточных средств, община была не в состоянии заняться капитальным ремонтом здания, а также постоять за себя. 7 апреля 1938 года Президиум Иркутского Облисполкома принял постановление, где говорилось, что "учитывая бесхозяйственное отношение римско-католической религиозной общины верующих к арендуемому у Горсовета зданию специального назначения (костел) и на основании постановления ВЦИК и СНК РСФСР от 8 апреля 1929 года утвердить постановление Иркутского Горсовета о расторжении договора с указанной общиной верующих".
- Община была распущена, богослужение окончательно прекратилось, храм закрыли. Католики польского происхождения потеряли место, где они не только молились, но и общались на родном языке.
- 13 апреля 1991 года Папа Иоанн Павел II принял решение об образовании на территории Союза двух апостольских администратур - европейской и азиатской частей. Апостопольским администратором азиатской части был назначен епископ Иосиф Верт .
- 14 сентября того же года епископом Иосифом Вертом был вновь восстановлен Иркутский приход Успения Богородицы Римско-католической Церкви . Настоятелем прихода был назначен отец Игнатий Павлусь.
Новейшая хроника прихода
Last updated: 26.04.2000 20:59
Проект: Дмитрий Таевский | Дизайн: Ольга Новикова | Содержание: Дмитрий Таевский , Ольга Новикова , Елена Свиридова